In, for example, crustaceans, copper is an integral component of the respiratory pigment, hemocyanin. Table 92.1. Methemoglobinemia is not associated with anemia, hemolysis, or other hematologic abnormalities. If degradation of those proteins liberates LORF, processing of the LORF precursor is different from that of other neuropeptides, because LORF sequences are not flanked by the dibasic or monobasic cleavage sites. In large vessels of cephalochordates, amoebocytes form a continuous, squamous lining, but lack of intercellular junctions. It has been described under different names in annelids, phoronids, holoturians (as “fibroblasts”, Smiley, 1994), brachiopods (phagocytic and carrying granules, Pan and Watabe, 1989), hemichordates or cephalochordates (as “endothelial cells”, Ruppert, 1997). Thereby the O2-diffusion gradient from the blood to the tissues can be maintained. Deoxygenated normal hemoglobin turns red, whereas methemoglobin remains brown. This means that during the evolution of ray-finned fishes, blood pH may have become more prone to change for a given acid-loading event at the same time as the pH sensitivity of Hb-O2 affinity increased via the Bohr effect. POUL BJERREGAARD, OLE ANDERSEN, in Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals (Third Edition), 2007. Figure 23.9 How to measure P 50 Functions of Respiratory Pigments! The homozygous state is incompatible with life. A second methemoglobin reductase, dependent on NADPH as cofactor, also is present in RBCs. This addition of copper to the pig's feed may lead to elevated copper concentrations in the agricultural soil if the same areas are amended with pig manure for several years, and soil quality criteria may be exceeded. Structures of Hemerythrin and Related Proteins of Sipuncula and Annelida*, POUL BJERREGAARD, OLE ANDERSEN, in Handbook on the Toxicology of Metals (Third Edition), 2007. Most teleost fishes have retained this large Bohr effect of around four Bohr protons per Hb tetramer until today. This author proposed a classification in four main types: prohemocytes (progenitor cells); hyaline hemocytes (plasmatocytes or monocytes); granulocytes; and eleocytes (chloragogenocytes). However, one fundamental disadvantage of free Hb itself as a blood substitute arises from its relatively small molecular size and consequent hemoglobinuria and rapid clearance from the circulation. Merely marking the diapers of newborns with aniline dyes has caused methemoglobinemia. Because methemoglobin is unable to bind (or release) oxygen, the presence of significant amounts of this respiratory pigment adversely affects blood oxygen-binding capacity and oxygen transport. When this is done, it is seen that the magnitude of the Bohr effect has dynamically changed during the 450-million-year history of jawed vertebrates (Figure 5). As noted by Bohr and colleagues in 1904, the effects of CO2 on O2 binding at the elevated PO2 values in lung blood are minimal, ensuring that O2 loading is not impaired by, for example, elevated environmental CO2 levels. Accumulation of nitrate in the intestinal tract of infants with diarrhea and acidosis (Kay et al, 1990; Yano et al, 1982) or symptomatic dietary protein intolerance (Murray and Christie, 1993) is thought to underlie the transient methemoglobinemia that occurs in these conditions. This distinctive motility is controlled by chemotaxis and is especially well developed in the polynuclear neutrophils. The precursor protein mRNA of LORF has yet to be clarified, but the peptide sequence is identical to the N-terminal part of the respiratory pigments myohemerythrin (14 kDa) of the sipunculid Themiste zostericola and hemerythrin of Hirudo medicinalis, while it is highly homologous to those of hemerythrin and a yolk protein, ovohemerythrin (14 kDa) of the leech T. tessulatum (Table 92.1) [1]. The intracellular packaging of hemoglobin allows for transport of higher concentrations of osmotically active hemoglobin molecules in the blood than would be physiologically feasible if it were in free solution. The imidazole side group of histidine is the most important proton buffer group in proteins. The Hb buffer value (moles of protons needed to decrease the pH of a 1 molar solution of tetrameric Hb by 1 pH unit, z-axis) was measured in living species and its evolution reconstructed on a phylogenetic tree (x, y-plane) by linear parsimony. Respiratory pigments are molecules capable to transmit oxygen and additional respiratory gases present in the circulatory fluids. Ramón Muñoz-Chápuli, José M. Pérez-Pomares, in Heart Development and Regeneration, 2010. Microvilli on the apical surface increase surface area for the digestion and transport of molecules from the intestinal lumen, Fluoroquinolones: Any of a group of fluorinated derivatives of quinolone that are used as antibacterial drugs, Fortified: To add material to for strengthening or enriching, Homeostatic: A relatively stable state of equilibrium or a tendency toward such a state between the different but interdependent elements or groups of elements of an organism, population or group, Immunosuppression: Suppression, eg, by drugs, of natural immune responses, Insoluble: Incapable of being dissolved in a liquid and especially water; also: soluble only with difficulty or to a slight degree, Isoenzyme: Any of two or more chemically distinct but functionally similar enzymes, Malabsorption: Faulty absorption of nutrient materials from the alimentary canal, MAOI: Monoamine oxidase inhibitor: any of various antidepressant drugs that increase the concentration of monoamines in the brain by inhibiting the action of monoamine oxidase, Milieu: The physical or social setting in which people live or in which something happens or develops, Non-prescription: Capable of being bought without a doctor’s prescription, Oxidative: To become combined with oxygen, Pathophysiologic: The physiology of abnormal states; specifically: the functional changes that accompany a particular syndrome or disease, Permeability: The quality or state of being permeable, Pharmacodynamics: A branch of pharmacology dealing with the reactions between drugs and living systems, Pharmacokinetics: The characteristic interactions of a drug and the body in terms of its absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, Phyto-chemistry: The chemistry of plants, plant processes and plant products, Physiological: Characteristic of or appropriate to an organism’s healthy or normal functioning, Polymorphisms: The quality or state of existing in or assuming different forms, Polypharmacy: The practice of administering many different medicines especially concurrently for the treatment of the same disease, Polyphenols: A polyhydroxy phenol; especially: an antioxidant phytochemical, eg, chlorogenic acid, that tends to prevent or neutralize the damaging effects of free radicals, Precipitation: The process of forming a precipitate from a solution, Prescription: A written direction for a therapeutic or corrective agent; specifically: one for the preparation and use of a medicine, Psychotropic: Acting on the mind, eg, psychotropic drugs, Sequestration: The act of keeping a person or group apart from other people or the state of being kept apart from other people, Therapeutic Indices: A measure of the relative desirability of a drug for the attaining of a particular medical end that is usually expressed as the ratio of the largest dose producing no toxic symptoms to the smallest dose routinely producing cures, Thromboembolism: The blocking of a blood vessel by a particle that has broken away from a blood clot at its site of formation, Trace elements: A chemical element present in minute quantities; especially: one used by organisms and held essential to their physiology, Transfusions: The process of transfusing fluid into a vein or artery, Tyramine: A phenolic amine C8H11NO found in various foods and beverages (as cheese and red wine) that has a sympathomimetic action and is derived from tyrosine, Vasopressors: Causing a rise in blood pressure by exerting a vasoconstrictor effect, William C. Mentzer, Bertil E. Glader, in Avery's Diseases of the Newborn (Eighth Edition), 2005.

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