Bedrock can also become broken and fractured, creating spaces that can fill with water. Groundwater comprises 97 percent of fresh water not tied up as ice and snow in polar ice sheets, glaciers , and snowfields. Groundwater, which is in aquifers below the surface of the Earth, is one of the Nation's most important natural resources. Groundwater plays a vital role in the development of arid and semiarid zones, sometimes supporting agricultural and industrial enterprises that could not otherwise exist. Bedrocks have varying amounts of void spaces in them where groundwater accumulates. There is a general belief that groundwater is purer and safer than the surface water due to the protective qualities of the soil cover, depending mainly on its usage and consumption, it can be a renewable resource. Chapter 9* - Groundwater *This chapter was prepared by J. Chilton 9.1. Models are a simplification of reality to investigate certain phenomena or to predict future behaviour. This greatly exceeds the amount of water in streams, rivers, and lakes. Groundwater Modelling is an efficient tool for groundwater management and remediation. Before talking about groundwater recharge, Let’s have a quick overview of what the term “groundwater” really means. Groundwater is a significant part of the hydrologic cycle, containing 21 percent of Earth's freshwater. Groundwater is the source of about 37 percent of the water that county and city water departments supply to households and businesses (public supply). But Earth's bedrock consists of many types of rock, such as sandstone, granite, and limestone. Groundwater is water present beneath Earth’s surface in soil pore spaces, underground bedrocks and in the fractures of rock formations.. It’s different from surface water which is basically water that exists on earth’s surfaces like streams and rivers. Groundwater pollution (also called groundwater contamination) occurs when pollutants are released to the ground and make their way down into groundwater.This type of water pollution can also occur naturally due to the presence of a minor and unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in the groundwater, in which case it is more likely referred to as contamination rather than pollution. Natural replenishment does not mean that supplies are unlimited. Groundwater, water that occurs below the surface of Earth, where it occupies all or part of the void spaces in soils or geologic strata. Introduction Water from beneath the ground has been exploited for domestic use, livestock and irrigation since the earliest times. Although groundwater is generally considered to be a renewable resource, meaning that supplies will be replenished, there are possibilities that groundwater problems can arise when these resources are overused. If too much water is used before sustainable levels can be restored, users may find themselves dealing with … types, climate and human activities, and generally, groundwater quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological and isotope characteristics.

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