The bark extract contains by far the most hamamelitannin and it has the most gallic acid and catechins. A biodegradable emollient that gives a fresh gliding sensation and a powdery after feel. Centella Asiatica also often shows up in products that try to treat cellulite or striae. It's one of the most commonly used thickeners and emulsion stabilizers. If you wanna know more, we wrote a more detailed explanation about what's the deal with alcohol in skincare products at alcohol denat. Simple alcohol that's a great solvent, penetration enhancer, creates cosmetically elegant, light formulas, great astringent, and antimicrobial. It's a common top note in perfumes and contains (among others) fragrant compounds limonene (37%), linalyl acetate (30%) and linalool (8.8%). A handy helper ingredient that helps water and oil to mix nicely together. Witch hazel is a smallish tree (up to 5m) that's native to North-America, has nice yellow flowers and is similar to the hazelnut bush (hence the name). The famous omega-6 fatty acid, the mother of all ω-6 fatty acids in our body. It's also a solvent and can boost the effectiveness of preservatives. Vital Vita 12 Synergy Serum A highly concentrated serum which minimises fine lines and wrinkles, the appearance of pigmentation and improves elasticity and firmness. Other than that, citrus peel also contains the problematic compound called furanocoumarin that makes them mildly phototoxic. As for turmeric and skincare, we have good news: studies show that the root extract and its main biologically active component, curcumin can do multiple good things for the skin. Centella Asiatica - or gotu kola as normal people call it  - has been used in folk medicine for hundreds of years. The conversion is a 3 step one and looks like this: retinyl palmitate --> retinol -- > retinaldehyde --> all-trans-retinoic acid. By steps, we mean metabolic steps. If possible use it at night, just to be on the safe side. See the list below for details. Also alcohol-free extracts and distillates exist; actually, the majority seem to be alcohol-free nowadays. Key Ingredients. Panthenol might make your hair softer, more elastic and helps to comb your hair more easily. It's a famous plant in Korean traditional medicine to treat infection and irritated skin. Regarding conversion to AA, there seems to be no data about it, so we can neither deny nor confirm it. A nice ingredient to take as a supplement for stronger nails and hair. It also has some anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties, so all in all, a nice one to spot on the ingredient list. Dimethicone/​Vinyl Dimethicone Crosspolymer, Hydroxyethyl Acrylate/​Sodium Acryloyldimethyl Taurate Copolymer, Chamomilla Recutita (Matricaria) Flower Extract, Citrus Aurantium Bergamia (Bergamot) Fruit Oil, Hamamelis Virginiana (Witch Hazel) Extract, Citrus Aurantium Dulcis (Orange) Peel Oil, Aesculus Hippocastanum (Horse Chestnut) Seed Extract, Copaifera Officinalis (Balsam Copaiba) Resin, Citrus Nobilis (Mandarin Orange) Peel Oil, Dimethicone/Vinyl Dimethicone Crosspolymer, Hydroxyethyl Acrylate/Sodium Acryloyldimethyl Taurate Copolymer, Read all the geeky details about Niacinamide here >>, Read all the geeky details about Glycerin here >>, 14% added alcohol according to the USP specifications, alcohol is, at best drying, and at worst skin-damaging, You can read all about the pure form here. puts it in his awesome blog post, squalane's main things are "emolliency, surface occlusion, and TEWL prevention all with extreme cosmetic elegance". Used alone, it can make the formula sticky and it is a good team player so it is usually combined with other thickeners and so-called rheology modifiers (helper ingredients that adjust the flow and thus the feel of the formula). In general, the main component of citrus peel oils is limonene (77-86% for mandarin peel), a super common fragrant ingredient that makes everything smell nice (but counts as a frequent skin sensitizer). Key Ingredients Poresol Ampoule: Vitamin H, Centella Asiatica Extract, Adenosine, Salicylic Acid, Glycolic Acid, Squalane Brightening Ampoule: Vitamin B12, Lemon Peel Oil, Bergamot Fruit Oil, Retinyl Palmitate Synergy Ampoule: Vitamin C, Tumeric Root Extract, Niacinamide… As for skin-brightening, there is a trade publication with in-vivo data showing that SAP can fade brown spots. It's a little helper ingredient coming from corn, rice or potato starch that can help to keep skin mat (absorbent), to stabilise emulsions, and to keep the product together (binding). It's a common top note in perfumes and contains (among others) fragrant compounds limonene (37%), linalyl acetate (30%) and linalool (8.8%). The fragrant essential oil coming from the flowers of Rose Geranium.

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