https://www.encyclopedia.com/social-sciences/applied-and-social-sciences-magazines/age-differentiation, "Age Differentiation Since promotion through the grades is a matter of individual achievement (e.g., initiation of first child), ability to pay fees and provide feasts, and personal qualities, not all men reach the higher grades. In addition, we need to have reliable information on modern change in age-grades and age-groups. As men mature, marry, and become family heads, right-holders in property, and responsible citizens, their obligations are to their families and kin-groups and to their political superiors. In particular, newspapers and television news have a tendency to present ethnic minorities as a problem or to associate Black people with physical rather than intellectual activities and to neglect, and even ignore, racism and the inequalities that result from it. Gulliver, P. H. 1953 The Age-set Organization of the Jie Tribe. Among the Swazi, every five to seven years the paramount chief recruited a new age-group from the youths “about to mature and those who had recently matured” (Kuper 1952, p. 23). 1953 The Nandi of Kenya: Tribal Control in a Pastoral Society. Kinship and age-groups. Wilson, Monica H. 1949 Nyakyusa Age-villages. Many encourage the idea that, they should be more in touch with their emotions or feminine side, they should care more about their appearance. Consequently, the media regards royal events, such as weddings and funerals, as national events. Eastern Eye, Snoop, The Voice, etc, and radio stations such as Sunrise Radio, Asian FX, etc. All human societies recognize a number of life stages, to which rather diffuse patterns of activities, attitudes, prohibitions, and obligations are ascribed. Among younger men this conflict matters less, for such people tend to be less differentiated. A new group was made up of coeval youths who individually purchased the right of entry from a sponsor in the next older group. Oxford Univ. The latter is, of course, roughly correct, although entry into the category occurs only after a man’s first child is born. Encyclopedia.com. "Age Differentiation Traditional media representations of femininity. Karpf (1988) suggests that there is a need for charities, but that telethons act to keep the audience in the position of givers and to keep recipients in their place as grateful and dependent. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Alternatively, the field of activities involving age-groups is strictly separate from the field involving kinship. Transfer from one grade to the next is ideally accomplished through ritual. Radical feminists believe that it is no coincidence that, at the same time as women are achieving greater social, political and professional equality, media products symbolically relegate them to subordinate positions as sex objects or motherhousewives. Wayne et al. The group in the warrior grade is a highly integrated, active unit, but afterward it degenerates to no more than an age-class. Lambert, H. E. 1956 Kikuyu Social and Political Institutions. Dyson-Hudson, Neville 1963 The Karimojong Age System. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. Rather, when it did appear, e.g. People in the same grade, that is, playing the same role, have much in common: they share their differentiation from younger and older statuses; they engage in similar activities and often cooperate with each other; and they share the same orientation and aspirations. Studies of industrial relations reporting by the Glasgow University Media Group suggest that the media portray ‘unreasonable’ workers as making trouble for ‘reasonable’ employers. In the literature of social anthropology there has been some confusion in the terminology of age and social structure. Part of the British newspaper market is specifically aimed at the middle classes and their consumption, tastes and interests, e.g. Achievement of a further grade was by collective purchase of the rights from their existing owners, and not by virtue of age; and a group that had sold its rights might exist outside the system until it later purchased rights in a new grade. Group FormationMuzafer Sherif and Carolyn W. Sherif Media professionals from ethnic minority backgrounds have responded to these inequalities and prejudices by developing media institutions and agencies that specifically target the interests and concerns of ethnic-minority audiences. . Political debate is often reduced simplistically to conflict between personalities. The regularization of intergenerational conflict is also apparent in aspects of the Kikuyu and Jie systems, although, in contrast, father-son cooperation is integral to the Masai system. Nadel, Siegfried F. 1942 A Black Byzantium: The Kingdom of Nupe in Nigeria. Alternate groups are linked through a father–son ideology, so that “fathers” are responsible for the transfer of their “sons” through the young men’s grades. Representations of the middle classes The media emphasis on women’s bodies as projects is the result of the growth of the cosmetic and diet product industries. Published for the International Institute of African Languages and Cultures. The grade systems within the male clubs of some Melanesian villages (e.g., Banks Islands and New Hebrides) have sometimes been wrongly classified together with true age systems. the Daily Mail. Sociological studies show that when the elderly do appear in the media, they tend to be portrayed in the following one-dimensional ways. Men, on the other hand, are seldom presented nude or defined by their marital or family status. Often, the poor are portrayed in statistical rather than in human terms by news bulletins that focus on the numbers unemployed or on benefits, rather than the individual suffering and personal indignities of poverty. Gerbner (2002) argues that the media participate in the symbolic annihilation of gays and lesbians by negatively stereotyping them, by rarely portraying them realistically, or by not portraying them at all. stereotypically negative news. social differentiation. Among the nomadic Turkana of Kenya, where local groups are highly unstable, kinship narrow in range, and political institutions weakly developed, the age-class system is most important. They are a by-product of the need of media conglomerates in capitalist societies to make a profit. Problems of historical reconstruction have loomed larger than functional interpretations. Press. He also notes the enormous amount of print and broadcast media dedicated to daily business news and stock market quotations, despite the fact that few people in Britain own stocks and shares. The middle class are over-represented on TV dramas and situation comedies. Content analysis of teenage magazines in Britain indicates that almost 70% of the content and images focus on beauty and fashion, compared with only 12% focused on education or careers. This creates a form of false consciousness in women and deters them from making the most of the opportunities available to them and consequently men’s patriarchal power is rarely challenged. One of the best-known cases of age-grades is that of the Masai of east Africa: for males, the grades are uninitiated youths (ilaiyok); young men or warriors (ilmurran), who are divided between junior and senior subgrades; elders (ilmoruak), who are divided into junior, senior, and retired subgrades; and ancient elders (ildasati). Ethnographic Survey of Africa, Southern Africa, Part 1. Brief definition of the concept…, Gerontocracy Among the Nandi a new group is recruited approximately every 15 years, and each one occupies the “warrior” grade for the same period of time and then abdicates to its chronological successors. Affairs purely for women are often organized by married women’s groups, but the criterion of age is infrequently utilized and the groups are weakly developed. Unfortunately, despite a considerable literature, the sociological aspects of these systems are far from clear; the nature of intragroup and intergroup relations, and their connection with social control and other activities, is vague (e.g., Lowie 1916).

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