The process of being ranked can be changed by the person being ranked. Read this article to learn about “Social stratification: meaning, types, and characteristics”. (1) According to N. Kabeer “Gender is seen as the process by which individuals who are born into biological categories of male or female become the social categories of men and women through the acquisition of locally defined attributes of masculinity and feminity.”, (2) According to A. Masefield—”Gender can be defined as a notion that offers a set of frameworks within which the social and ideological construction and representation of differences between sexes are explained.”, (3) According to ILO, “Gender refers to the social differences and relations between men and women, which are learned, which vary widely among societies and cultures and change over time.”. For example, if a teacher leaves one school and joins another school or a bank officer leaves one branch to work in another or change of residence are the horizontal mobility. Members of a particular layer have a common identity. It plays an important role in shaping institutions and practices in every society. 5. On the basis of the analysis of the different definitions given by eminent scholars, social stratification may have the following characteristics. There is no inheritance of parental status. Sociologists study social mobility in order to find out the relative ‘openness’ of a social structure. Copyright 10. It was present even in the small wondering bonds. The nature, forms, direction and magnitude of social mobility depends on the nature and types of social stratification. According to Sorokin “all permanently organized groups are stratified.”. The society in which divisions of social classes exist is known as a stratified society. (c) Between two positions at the same level. Gender, perhaps is the oldest and permanent source of social differentiation. are as follows: 1. Stratification is a process of interaction or differentiation whereby some people come to rank higher than others. Hence, caste as a major type of social stratification does not facilitate vertical social mobility. Human society is not homogeneous but heterogeneous. Life-styles include such matters like the residential areas in every community which have gradations of prestige-ranking, mode of housing, means of recreation, the kinds of dress, the kinds of books, TV shows to which one is exposed and so on. Social stratification involves two phenomena (i) differentiation of individuals or groups on the basis of possession of certain characteristics whereby some individuals or groups come to rank higher than others, (ii) the ranking of individuals according to some basis of evaluation. But social stratification does much more: It results in some members of society benefiting greatly and others suffering. Social Stratification refers to “The ranking of individuals on a scale of superiority-inferiority-equality, according to some commonly accepted basis of valuation. Neither a man nor a woman is sex alone. The origin of the concept gender can be traced to the 19th century women’s movement and in Marxism. The gender of a man is masculine and a woman is feminine. They have a similar life style. TOS 7. So every society, past or present, big or small is characterized by diversed forms of social stratification. (i) Caste is a hereditary endogamous social group in which a person’s rank and its accompanying rights and obligations are ascribed on the basis of his birth into a particular group. For example, if the son of a peon joins a bank as an officer, it is said to be upward social mobility but if he loses the job due to any other reason or inefficiency, he is downwardly mobile from his previous job. The Indian Caste system provides an example of stratification system. Social Stratification - Three Characteristics of Stratified Systems. All societies arrange their members in terms of superiority, inferiority and equality. Movement from one status to another has no barrier. (vi) Racial differences accompanied by dissimilarity also leads to stratification. For example, the rise and fall in the occupational structure of a family which leads to change in its social status within one generation is called intra-generational mobility. Each estate had a state. Characteristics of Social Stratification: 1. Once such positions are assigned, they can not advance and improve their social status in any way. It is ancient, i.e., it has been found in all societies. It is a conceptual tool for analysis and is used to highlight different structural relationships of inequality between men and women. There are two types of vertical mobility. Social stratification is horizontal division of society into “higher” and “lower” social units.”. Much of an individuals’ power is reflected by the capital that he or she may have. Social stratification refers to a society's categorization of its people into groups based on socioeconomic factors like wealth, income, race, education, ethnicity, gender, occupation, social status, or derived power (social and political).

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