sinks of atmospheric halogenated compounds, Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 27, 333–336, 1977. , Singh, H. B., Salas, L. J., Shigeishi, H., and Scribner, E.: Atmospheric Res., 102, 8855–8859,, 1997. , Patra, P. K., Takigawa, M., Watanabe, S., Chandra, N., Ishijima, K., and Yamashita, Y.: Improved chemical tracer simulation by MIROC4.0-based Atmospheric Chemistry-Transport Model (MIROC4-ACTM), SOLA, 14, 91–96,, 2018. , Prinn, R. G., Weiss, R. F., Fraser, P. J., Simmonds, P. G., Cunnold, D. M., Environ., 30, 1621–1629, 1996. , Maiss, M. and Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.: Atmospheric SF6: trends, sources, and prospects, Environ. Res., 98, 10499–10507, 1993. , Kovács, T., Feng, W., Totterdill, A., Plane, J. M. C., Dhomse, S., Gómez-Martín, J. C., Stiller, G. P., Haenel, F. J., Smith, C., Forster, P. M., García, R. R., Marsh, D. R., and Chipperfield, M. P.: Determination of the atmospheric lifetime and global warming potential of sulfur hexafluoride using a three-dimensional model, Atmos. difference subsequently decreased to an annual average of ∼4 Gg yr−1 between 2013 and 2018, implying improved or more comprehensive reporting from non-Annex-1 countries, although we recognise that these differences are prone to large uncertainties given the limited emissions data submitted to UNFCCC from the non-Annex-1 countries. The scientific evidence is unequivocal. Comparing the model-estimated SF6 emissions from western Europe and have been offset by the growth in higher-EF GIS from other parts of the Table 6SF6 emission estimates for western Europe: UNFCCC inventory, InTEM, EMPA, and FLITS emissions (Gg yr−1). Res. Arnold et al. (2018) uses the NAME (Numerical Atmospheric dispersion Modelling Environment, v7.2) (Jones et al., 2007) atmospheric Lagrangian transport model. equal to the variability in the monthly baseline data points, representing regional emission estimates, with large uncertainties, account for 36 % Henne, S., Brunner, D., Oney, B., Leuenberger, M., Eugster, W., Bamberger, I., Meinhardt, F., Steinbacher, M., and Emmenegger, L.: Validation of the Swiss methane emission inventory by atmospheric observations and inverse modelling, Atmos. slight upward trend (+0.007 Gg yr−2). improved transport models, and a substantial improvement in the accuracy and For example, a illustrating that significant emissions are located in southern Germany, a determined from atmospheric observations. electrical capacity grew by 62 % (2412 GW) during this period. (last access: 3 February 2020), 2014. , Brunner, D., Arnold, T., Henne, S., Manning, A., Thompson, R. L., Maione, M., O'Doherty, S., and Reimann, S.: Comparison of four inverse modelling systems applied to the estimation of HFC-125, HFC-134a, and SF6 emissions over Europe, Atmos. 1st International Conference on Electric Power Equipment – Switching the emissions for every grid cell. New atmospheric SF6 mole fractions are presented, which extend and update our previously reported time series from the 1970s to 2008 by a further 10 years to 2018 in both hemispheres. Robock, A., Stephens, G., Takemura, T., and Zhang, H.: Anthropogenic and Atmospheric concentrations are all shown in parts per billion (ppb). Measured global atmospheric abundances of greenhouse gases are used to calculate changes in radiative forcing beginning in 1979 when NOAA's global air sampling network expanded significantly. Res., 88, 8401–8414,, 1983. , Chinese Wind Energy Association (CWEA): IEA WIND TCP ANNUAL REPORT, CWEA, Beijing, China, 2017. , Deeds, D. A., Vollmer, M. K., Kulongoski, J. T., Miller, B. R., Muhle, J., Harth, C. M., Izbicki, J. Oceanography (SIO) to the AGAGE measurement sites was ∼0.6 % with a calibration scale uncertainty of ∼2.0 % (Prinn et al., 2018). Kingdom, Ireland, Benelux, Germany, France, Denmark, Switzerland, Austria, generally not recorded when tabulating bottom-up emission estimates, which Average annual sales of SF6 to the magnesium industry were estimated to be ∼0.25 Gg yr−1 from 1996 to 2003 (Smythe, 2004). We estimate global emissions of SF6 using data from the five core AGAGE observing sites and archived air samples with a 12-box global chemical transport model and an inverse method. of Producers and Distributors of Electrical Energy (UNIPEDE)/Co-ordinating reliability of the results. Tasmania, in the SH (red-filled circles). 81–94, 1993. , Cunnold, D., Alyea, F., and Prinn, R. G.: A Methodology for Determining the emissions and the estimate derived from sales are consistently lower than electric power systems, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, available at: S., Stordal, F., Cunnold, D. M., Zhang, X. C., Maione, M., Zhang, F., Huang, Annex-1 countries, as SF6 consumption moved from Annex-1 countries to Meas. As described below, observations from Gosan (Jeju Island, South European a priori emission field, we disaggregated 2 kt yr−1 of SF6 emissions within each country's borders according to a gridded population density data set (CIESIN, Center for International Earth Science Information Network,, last access: 12 November 2019), and we set 200 % of uncertainty of (under-reported by a factor of 2) with top-down emission estimates Stanley, K. M., Grant, A., O'Doherty, S., Young, D., Manning, A. J., Stavert, A. R., Spain, T. G., Salameh, P. K., Harth, C. M., Simmonds, P. G., Sturges, W. T., Oram, D. E., and Derwent, R. G.: Greenhouse gas measurements from a UK network of tall towers: technical description and first results, Atmos. Rigby, M., Manning, A. J., and Prinn, R. G.: Inversion of long-lived trace gas emissions using combined Eulerian and Lagrangian chemical transport models, Atmos. alternative gases to SF6 or SF6-free equipment have been CO2 is typically measured in parts per million because it is 1,000 times more prevalent than the other gases, but is shown as parts per billion in the table for consistency. This rise was large enough to account Due to commercial confidentiality, there is very little information on the consumption of SF6 in electronics manufacturing. UNFCCC: Annex I Party GHG Inventory Submissions, available at: Vollmer, M. K., Zhou, L. X., Greally, B. R., Henne, S., Yao, B., Reimann, NAG5-12669, NNX07AE89G and NNX11AF17G to MIT; grants NAG5-4023, NNX07AE87G, NNX07AF09G, NNX11AF15G and NNX11AF16G to SIO); the BEIS; the University of Bristol (contract nos. Agency (EPA) established an SF6 emissions reduction partnership for

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